Microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye (microorganisms). The scope of microbiology extends to both eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic microorganisms. It involves the study of their structural diversity, classification, form, structure, reproduction, physiology, metabolism, and their economic importance or how they impact human lives. The field of microbiology is vast, and it is divided it into several branches, some of which are:
Bacteriology Study of bacteria, the largest and probably the most important group of microorganisms.
Medical Microbiology The study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness.
Agricultural Microbiology Studies both the useful and harmful roles of microorganisms in agriculture.
Industrial Microbiology The exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes, such as industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment.
Food and Dairy Microbiology Study of food borne microbial diseases and their control, and other aspects of food and dairy production such as processing, preservation, canning, pasteurization.
Aquatic Microbiology Involves with microbial examination of water, water purification, and biological degradation of waste.
Aero Microbiology Deals with dispersal of disease causing microorganisms through air, microbial populations in the atmosphere, their quality and quantity.
Environmental Microbiology Studies the role of microorganisms in maintaining the quality of the environment, such as degradation and decay of natural waste and their role in biogeochemical cycles.
Geochemical Microbiology The role of microorganisms in coal, gas, and mineral formation, as well as their use in prospecting coal, oil, and gas and recovery of minerals from low-grade ores are studied in this branch.
Microbiology experiments involve many techniques – the use of microscope, the use of analytical instruments such as pH meter and spectrophotometer, sterilization, staining, and culturing.