Key Specifications Table
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Insulin||R, M||ELISA||Fluorescent, Colorimetric|
|Description||Rat/Mouse Insulin ELISA|
|Background Information||Insulin, a 5.8 kDa hormone, is secreted by the islet beta cells in the pancreas.|
|Detection method||Fluorescent Colorimetric|
|Application||This Rat/Mouse Insulin ELISA is used to measure & quantify Insulin levels in Metabolism & Endocrine research.|
|Application Notes||3 hour assay, room temperature 10 μL sample size|
|Linearity of Dilution||79–133%|
|Standard Curve Range||
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||96-well strip plate|
|Protocol: Rat/ Mouse Insulin ELISA Kit|
Rat/Mouse Insulin ELISA SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Influence of AIN-93 diet on mortality and cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats.|
Lidiane P Ardisson,Marcos F Minicucci,Paula S Azevedo,Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci,Beatriz B Matsubara,Luiz S Matsubara,Priscila P Santos,Heloisa B Assalin,Rosangela Novo,Ethel L Novelli,Léa Silvia Sant'ana,Sergio A R Paiva,Leonardo A M Zornoff
International journal of cardiology 156 2012
The AIN-93 diet was proposed by the American Institute of Nutrition with the objective of standardising studies in experimental nutrition. Our objective was to analyze the effects of AIN-93 diet after myocardial infarction in rats.
|Fenretinide prevents lipid-induced insulin resistance by blocking ceramide biosynthesis.|
Benjamin T Bikman,Yuguang Guan,Guanghou Shui,M Mobin Siddique,William L Holland,Ji Yun Kim,Gemma Fabriàs,Markus R Wenk,Scott A Summers,Gemma FabriÃ s
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid that is being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer and insulin resistance, but its mechanism of action has been elusive. Recent in vitro data indicate that fenretinide inhibits dihydroceramide desaturase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipotoxic ceramides that antagonize insulin action. Because of this finding, we assessed whether fenretinide could improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in vitro and in vivo by controlling ceramide production. The effect of fenretinide on insulin action and the cellular lipidome was assessed in a number of lipid-challenged models including cultured myotubes and isolated muscles strips incubated with exogenous fatty acids and mice fed a high-fat diet. Insulin action was evaluated in the various models by measuring glucose uptake or disposal and the activation of Akt/PKB, a serine/threonine kinase that is obligate for insulin-stimulated anabolism. The effects of fenretinide on cellular lipid levels were assessed by LC-MS/MS. Fenretinide negated lipid-induced insulin resistance in each of the model systems assayed. Simultaneously, the drug depleted cells of ceramide, while promoting the accumulation of the precursor dihydroceramide, a substrate for the reaction catalyzed by Des1. These data suggest that fenretinide improves insulin sensitivity, at least in part, by inhibiting Des1 and suggest that therapeutics targeting this enzyme may be a viable therapeutic means for normalizing glucose homeostasis in the overweight and diabetic.
|Topiramate treatment protects blood-brain barrier pericytes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in diabetic mice.|
Tulin O Price,Vijay Eranki,William A Banks,Nuran Ercal,Gul N Shah
Endocrinology 153 2012
Diabetes mellitus causes cerebral microvasculature deterioration and cognitive decline. The specialized endothelial cells of cerebral microvasculature comprise the blood-brain barrier, and the pericytes (PC) that are in immediate contact with these endothelial cells are vital for blood-brain barrier integrity. In diabetes, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress is implicated as a mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced PC loss as a prerequisite leading to blood-brain barrier disruption. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (CA) regulate the oxidative metabolism of glucose and thus play an important role in the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. We hypothesize that the inhibition of mitochondrial CA would reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, rescue cerebral PC loss caused by diabetes-induced oxidative stress, and preserve blood-brain barrier integrity. We studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial CA activity on streptozotocin-diabetes-induced oxidative stress and PC loss in the mouse brain. At 3 wk of diabetes, there was significant oxidative stress; the levels of reduced glutathione were lower and those of 3-nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal, and superoxide dismutase were higher. Treatment of diabetic mice with topiramate, a potent mitochondrial CA inhibitor, prevented the oxidative stress caused by 3 wk of diabetes. A significant decline in cerebral PC numbers, at 12 wk of diabetes, was also rescued by topiramate treatment. These results provide the first evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial CA activity reduces diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain and rescues cerebral PC dropout. Thus, mitochondrial CA may provide a new therapeutic target for oxidative stress related illnesses of the central nervous system.
|Hypothalamic JNK1 and IKK? activation and impaired early postnatal glucose metabolism after maternal perinatal high-fat feeding.|
Eva Rother,Ruth Kuschewski,Miguel Angel Alejandre Alcazar,André Oberthuer,Inga Bae-Gartz,Christina Vohlen,Bernhard Roth,Jörg Dötsch
Endocrinology 153 2012
Hypothalamic inflammation has been demonstrated to be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Feeding pregnant and lactating rodents a diet rich in saturated fatty acids has consistently been shown to predispose the offspring for the development of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism. However, hypothalamic inflammation in the offspring has not been addressed as a potential underlying mechanism. In this study, virgin female C57BL/6 mice received high-fat feeding starting at conception until weaning of the offspring at postnatal d 21. The offspring developed increased body weight, body fat content, and serum leptin concentrations during the nursing period. Analysis of hypothalamic tissue of the offspring at postnatal d 21 showed up-regulation of several members of the toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascade and subsequent activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 and I?B kinase-? inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, glucose tolerance testing in the offspring revealed signs of impaired glucose tolerance along with increased hepatic expression of the key gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. In addition, significantly increased hepatic and pancreatic PGC1? expression suggests a role for sympathetic innervation in mediating the effects of hypothalamic inflammation to the periphery. Taken together, our data indicate an important role for hypothalamic inflammation in the early pathogenesis of glucose intolerance after maternal perinatal high-fat feeding.
|Resveratrol attenuates steatosis in obese Zucker rats by decreasing fatty acid availability and reducing oxidative stress.|
S Gómez-Zorita,A Fernández-Quintela,M T Macarulla,L Aguirre,E Hijona,L Bujanda,F Milagro,J A Martínez,M P Portillo
The British journal of nutrition 107 2012
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common manifestations of chronic liver disease worldwide. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of resveratrol on liver fat accumulation, as well as on the activity of those enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in fa/fa Zucker rats. A total of thirty rats were assigned to three experimental groups and orally treated with resveratrol for 6 weeks, or without resveratrol (C: control group; RSV15 group: 15 mg/kg body weight per d; RSV45 group: 45 mg/kg body weight per d). Liver histological analysis was performed by microscopy. Levels of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-Ia (CPT-Ia), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACO), fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme were assessed by spectrophotometry, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was assessed by radiometry. Commercial kits were used to determine serum TAG, NEFA, total HDL and non-HDL-cholesterol, glycerol, ketonic bodies, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hepatic TAG, thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates, GSH (GSSG) and superoxide dismutase. Resveratrol reduced liver weight and TAG content. It did not modify the activity of lipogenic enzymes but it did increase CPT-Ia and ACO activities. NEFA and ALP were reduced in both resveratrol-treated groups. AST/GOT was reduced only by the lowest dose. ALT/GPT, TAG and adiponectin remained unchanged. Resveratrol reduced liver oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that resveratrol can protect the liver from NAFLD by reducing fatty acid availability. Moreover, resveratrol also protects liver from oxidative stress.
|The effect Akt2 deletion on tumor development in Pten(+/-) mice.|
P-Z Xu,M-L Chen,S-M Jeon,X-D Peng,N Hay
Oncogene 31 2012
The serine/threonine kinase Akt is frequently activated in human cancers and is considered an attractive therapeutic target. However, the relative contributions of the different Akt isoforms to tumorigenesis, and the effect of their deficiencies on cancer development are not well understood. We had previously shown that Akt1 deficiency is sufficient to markedly reduce the incidence of tumors in Pten(+/-) mice. Particularly, Akt1 deficiency inhibits endometrial carcinoma and prostate neoplasia in Pten(+/-) mice. Here, we analyzed the effect of Akt2 deficiency on the incidence of tumors in Pten(+/-) mice. Relative to Akt1, Akt2 deficiency had little-to-no effect on the incidence of prostate neoplasia, endometrial carcinoma, intestinal polyps and adrenal lesions in Pten(+/-) mice. However, Akt2 deficiency significantly decreased the incidence of thyroid tumors in Pten(+/-), which correlates with the relatively high level of Akt2 expression in the thyroid. Thus, unlike Akt1 deletion, Akt2 deletion is not sufficient to markedly inhibit tumorigenesis in Pten(+/-) mice in most tested tissues. The relatively small effect of Akt2 deletion on the inhibition of tumorigenesis in Pten(+/-) mice could be explained, in part, by an insufficient decrease in total Akt activity, due to the relatively lower Akt2 versus Akt1 expression, and relatively high blood insulin levels in Pten(+/-)Akt2(-/-) mice. The relatively high blood insulin levels in Pten(+/-)Akt2(-/-) mice may elevate the activity of Akt1, and possibly Akt3, thus, limiting the reduction of total Akt activity and preventing this activity from dropping to a threshold level required to inhibit tumorigenesis.
|Hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction increases the susceptibility of rats to high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome.|
Rueda-Clausen CF, Dolinsky VW, Morton JS, Proctor SD, Dyck JR, Davidge ST.
Diabetes 60 507-16 2011
OBJECTIVE It is recognized that there is a remarkable variability in the systemic response to high-fat (HF) diets that cannot be completely explained by genetic factors. In addition, pregnancy complications leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have been associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) later in life. Thus, we hypothesized that offspring born with IUGR exhibit permanent metabolic changes that make them more susceptible to HF diet-induced MetS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SD rats born normal (control) or with hypoxia-induced IUGR were randomized to low-fat (10% fat) or HF (45% fat) diets. After 9 weeks of feeding, physiological and molecular pathways involved in the MetS were evaluated. RESULTS IUGR offspring exhibited decreased energy intake and physical activity relative to controls. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with decreased total body fat content, a relative increase in intra-abdominal fat deposition and adipocyte size, an increase in fasting plasma concentrations of leptin, triglyceride and free fatty acids, and an increased concentration of triglycerides and ceramides in both liver and skeletal muscle. These changes in lipid homeostasis were accompanied by in vivo insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance and associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C , inhibition of insulin receptor substrate 1, and a decreased activation of protein kinase B (PKB; also known as Akt) in liver and skeletal muscle in response to insulin. CONCLUSIONS IUGR enhances specific deleterious metabolic responses to a HF diet. Our results suggest that offspring born with IUGR may require special attention and follow-up to prevent the early onset of MetS.
|Role of local insulin augmentation upon allograft incorporation in a rat femoral defect model.|
Dedania J, Borzio R, Paglia D, Breitbart EA, Mitchell A, Vaidya S, Wey A, Mehta S, Benevenia J, O'Connor JP, Lin SS.
Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society 29 92-9 2011
Each year, over one million orthopedic operations are performed which a bony defect is presence, requiring the use of further augmentation in addition to bony fixation. Application of autogenous bone graft is the standard of care to promote healing of these defects, but several determents exist in using autogenous bone graft exist including limited supply and donor site morbidity. Prior work has demonstrated that local insulin application to fracture sites promote fracture healing, but no work has been performed to date in its effects upon defect healing/allograft incorporation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential role of local insulin application upon allograft incorporation. Microradiographic, histologic, and histomorphometric analysis outcome parameters showed that local insulin significantly accelerated new bone formation. Histological comparisons using predetermined scoring systems demonstrated significantly greater healing in femora treated with insulin compared to control femora (p < 0.001). Quantitatively more bone production was also observed, specifically in areas of endosteal (p = 0.010) and defect (p = 0.041) bone in femora treated with local insulin, compared to control femora, 6 weeks after implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of local insulin as an adjunct for the treatment of segmental defect and allograft incorporation.
|How moderate changes in Akt T-loop phosphorylation impact on tumorigenesis and insulin resistance.|
Wullschleger S, Sakamoto K, Johnstone L, Duce S, Fleming S, Alessi DR.
Disease models & mechanisms 4 95-103 2011
The Akt signalling pathway plays vital roles in controlling cellular responses to insulin as well as in proliferation and survival. Inhibition of Akt signalling leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas hyperactivation of Akt promotes tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigate how modest changes in the activity of the Akt signalling pathway, to an extent that might be achieved by drug treatment, would impact on insulin resistance and tumorigenesis. Using insulin-resistant PDK1(K465E/K465E) PH domain knock-in mice, we found that introducing the PTEN(+/-) mutation to slightly stimulate Akt restored normal insulin sensitivity. Introducing the PDK1(K465E/K465E) PH domain knock-in mutation into cancer-prone PTEN(+/-) mice, lowered Akt activity only by about 50%, but led to a delay in tumour onset of ∼4 months in a broad range of tumours. This was also accompanied by slower growth of B cell follicular lymphomas, as monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings imply that signal transduction inhibitors that lead to a modest reduction in Akt activity would not only delay onset of tumours possessing elevated phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activity but would also reduce the growth rate of developed tumours.
|Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine, a potential marker for hyperglycemia, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.|
Sookwong P, Nakagawa K, Fujita I, Shoji N, Miyazawa T.
Lipids 46 943-52 2011
It has been demonstrated in vivo that lipid glycation products such as Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine (Amadori-PE) accumulate in the plasma of diabetic humans and animals, but how lipid glycation products are formed under hyperglycemic conditions are not clear. We sought to clarify the occurrence of lipid glycation and its relationships with lipid peroxidation and protein glycation during the development of hyperglycemia using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. A significant increase in Amadori-PE was observed in STZ rats 7 days after STZ treatment, and Amadori-PE (especially 18:0-20:4 Amadori-PE) was found at high levels in the blood and in organs that are strongly affected by diabetes, such as the kidney. Significant changes in Amadori-PE appeared to occur prior to changes in levels of oxidized lipids, which increased after 21-28 days. In addition, accumulation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a protein glycation product, proceeded somewhat more slowly and moderately than that of Amadori-PE, suggesting that Amadori-PE and CML are early and advanced glycation products, respectively. Our results suggest that Amadori-PE may be a useful predictive marker for hyperglycemia, particularly in the early stages of diabetes. Similar speculations have been made from previous human studies, but this study provides a direct evidence to support the speculations in rat study.
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