Key Specifications Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|ICC, IHC, IH(P), FC||Fluorescent|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||40 assays|
|Reference overview||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Autophagy activation is associated with neuroprotection against apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.|
C-H Jing,L Wang,P-P Liu,C Wu,D Ruan,G Chen
Neuroscience 213 2012
Autophagy, the bulk intracellular degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, can be a pro-survival or a pro-death mechanism depending on the context. A recent study showed that autophagy was activated in the phase of early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, whether autophagy activation after SAH is protective or harmful is still elusive. This study was undertaken to determine the potential role of autophagy pathway activation in early brain injury following SAH. The rats were pretreated with intracerebral ventricular infusion of either the autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) or inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) before SAH onset. The results from electron microscopic examinations showed that RAP administration caused the formation of autophagosomal vacuoles, and 3-MA induced neuronal apoptosis. RAP treatment significantly increased the expression of autophagic proteins Atg5 and Beclin 1, the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II to LC3-I and reduced caspase-3 activity, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, brain edema and neurological deficits after SAH. Conversely, 3-MA treatment exacerbated early brain injury. RAP treatment significantly increased the expression of the autophagic proteins Atg5 and Beclin 1, the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I and reduced caspase-3 activity, the number of TUNEL-positive cells, brain edema and neurological deficits after SAH. Conversely, 3-MA treatment reversed these changes and exacerbated early brain injury. To further clarify the mechanism of autophagy protection, we investigated the expression levels of key apoptosis-related molecules. The results showed that RAP administration decreased Bax translocation to the mitochondria and downstream cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Taken together, our study indicates that activation of autophagic pathways reduces early brain injury after SAH. This neuroprotective effect is likely exerted by anti-apoptotic mechanisms.
|Huangqi decoction inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis, but promotes Kupffer cell activation in dimethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver fibrosis.|
Cheng Liu,Gaoqiang Wang,Gaofeng Chen,Yongping Mu,Lijun Zhang,Xudong Hu,Mingyu Sun,Chenghai Liu,Ping Liu
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 12 2012
|Autoimmunity in CD73/Ecto-5'-nucleotidase deficient mice induces renal injury.|
Cornelia Blume,Agnieszka Felix,Nelli Shushakova,Faikah Gueler,Christine Susanne Falk,Hermann Haller,Juergen Schrader
PloS one 7 2012
Extracellular adenosine formed by 5'-ectonucleotidase (CD73) is involved in tubulo-glomerular feedback in the kidney but is also known to be an important immune modulator. Since CD73(-/-)mutant mice exhibit a vascular proinflammatory phenotype, we asked whether long term lack of CD73 causes inflammation related kidney pathologies. CD73(-/-)mice (13 weeks old) showed significantly increased low molecule proteinuria compared to C57BL6 wild type controls (4.8 ≥ 0.52 vs. 2.9 ± 0.54 mg/24 h, p<0.03). Total proteinuria increased to 5.97 ± 0.78 vs. 2.55 ± 0.35 mg/24 h at 30 weeks (p<0.01) whereas creatinine clearance decreased (0.161 ± 0.02 vs. 0.224 ± 0.02 ml/min). We observed autoimmune inflammation in CD73(-/-)mice with glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis, showing glomerular deposition of IgG and C3 and enhanced presence of CD11b, CD8, CD25 as well as GR-1-positive cells in the interstitium. Vascular inflammation was associated with enhanced serum levels of the cytokines IL-18 and TNF-α as well as VEGF and the chemokine MIP-2 (CXCL-2) in CD73(-/-)mice, whereas chemokines and cytokines in the kidney tissue were unaltered or reduced. In CD73(-/-)mice glomeruli, we found a reduced number of podocytes and endothelial fenestrations, increased capillaries per glomeruli, endotheliosis and enhanced tubular fibrosis. Our results show that adult CD73(-/-)mice exhibit spontaneous proteinuria and renal functional deterioration even without exogenous stress factors. We have identified an autoimmune inflammatory phenotype comprising the glomerular endothelium, leading to glomeruli inflammation and injury and to a cellular infiltrate of the renal interstitium. Thus, long term lack of CD73 reduced renal function and is associated with autoimmune inflammation.
|Low-dose thromboxane A2 receptor stimulation promotes closure of the rat ductus arteriosus with minimal adverse effects.|
Tomohiro Yokota,Takashi Aida,Yasuhiro Ichikawa,Takayuki Fujita,Utako Yokoyama,Susumu Minamisawa
Pediatric research 72 2012
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common life-threatening complication among premature infants. Although cyclooxygenase inhibitors are frequently used to treat PDA, as they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2), the most potent vasodilator in the ductus arteriosus (DA), their efficacy is often limited. As thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) induces vascular contraction via the TXA(2) receptor (TP), we hypothesized that TP stimulation would promote DA closure.
|Involvement of Periostin in Regression of Hyaloidvascular System during Ocular Development.|
Mitsuru Arima,Shigeo Yoshida,Takahito Nakama,Keijiro Ishikawa,Shintaro Nakao,Takeru Yoshimura,Ryo Asato,Yukio Sassa,Takeshi Kita,Hiroshi Enaida,Yuji Oshima,Akira Matsuda,Akira Kudo,Tatsuro Ishibashi
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 2012
Purpose. A timely regression of the hyaloid vascular system (HVS) is required for the normal ocular development. Although macrophages have a critical role in this process, the exact mechanism remains undetermined. Periostin is a matricellular protein involved in tissue and vascular remodeling. The purpose of our study was to determine whether periostin is involved in the HVS regression. Methods. We used wild type (WT) and periostin knockout (KO) mice. Indocyanine green angiography and immunohistochemistry with isolectin B4 were used to evaluate the HVS regression. TUNEL-labeling was used to quantify the number of apoptotic hyaloid vascular endothelial cells. F4/80 and Iba-1 staining was performed to determine the number and location of macrophages in the vitreous. The location of periostin also was investigated by immunohistochemistry. To determine the functional role of periostin, the degree of adhesion of human monocytes to fibronectin was measured by an adhesion assay. Results. The HVS regression and peak in the number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic endothelial cells were delayed in periostin KO mice. The number of F4/80 positive cells in the vitreous was higher in periostin KO mice. Only a small number of Iba-1-positive cells near the hyaloid vessels was co-stained with periostin, and peripheral blood monocytes were not stained with periostin. Adhesion assay showed that periostin increased the degree of attachment of monocytes to fibronectin. Conclusions. These results suggest that periostin, which is secreted by the intraocular macrophages, enhances the HVS regression by intensifying the adhesion of macrophages to hyaloid vessels.
|Gde2 regulates cortical neuronal identity by controlling the timing of cortical progenitor differentiation.|
Marianeli Rodriguez,Jeonghoon Choi,Sungjin Park,Shanthini Sockanathan
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 2012
The mammalian cortex is a multilaminar structure consisting of specialized layer-specific neurons that form complex circuits throughout the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are generated in a defined sequence dictated by their birthdate such that early-born neurons settle in deep cortical layers whereas late-born neurons populate more superficial layers. Cortical neuronal birthdate is partly controlled by an intrinsic clock-type mechanism; however, the role of extrinsic factors in the temporal control of cell-cycle exit is less clear. Here, we show that Gde2, a six-transmembrane protein that induces spinal neuronal differentiation, is expressed in the developing cortex throughout cortical neurogenesis. In the absence of Gde2, cortical progenitors fail to exit the cell cycle on time, remain cycling, accumulate and exit the cell cycle en masse towards the end of the neurogenic period. These dynamic changes in cell-cycle progression cause deficits and delays in deep-layer neuronal differentiation and robust increases in superficial neuronal numbers. Gde2(-/-) cortices show elevated levels of Notch signaling coincident with when progenitors fail to differentiate, suggesting that abnormal Notch activation retains cells in a proliferative phase that biases them to superficial fates. However, no change in Notch signaling is observed at the time of increased cell-cycle exit. These observations define a key role for Gde2 in controlling cortical neuronal fates by regulating the timing of neurogenesis, and show that loss of Gde2 uncovers additional mechanisms that trigger remaining neuronal progenitors to differentiate at the end of the neurogenic period.
|Cell proliferation pattern in adult zebrafish forebrain is sexually dimorphic.|
K Ampatzis,P Makantasi,C R Dermon
Neuroscience 226 2012
Cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death are considered key players for brain plasticity mechanisms that underlie sex specific phenotypes in brain and behavior. Well-documented examples of sex-specific neurogenesis are the avian song system telencephalic areas and the mammalian hippocampus. The present study questioned whether sex difference in cell proliferation represents a conserved feature of adult brain plasticity, using the neurogenetic model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio). For this, active cycling progenitors were determined by means of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry, in adult male and female zebrafish forebrain proliferation zones. In addition, apoptotic figures were measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. Short-term survival experiments showed that the medial zone of dorsal telencephalic area (Dm) the ventral part of periventricular pretectal nucleus (PPv) and the periventricular nucleus of posterior tuberculum, exhibited higher levels of cycling cells in females, while the dorsal zone of periventricular hypothalamus displayed higher density of mitotically active cells in males. Apoptotic figures were present in all major proliferation zones, but did not differ between sexes. However, apoptotic figures paralleled the density of dividing cells, suggesting a close relationship of cell birth and cell death. Interestingly, in long-term survival experiments, sex differences were preserved in the long-lasting BrdU cells within the telencephalic Dm (homologous to mammalian amygdala), and the diencephalic PPv, areas that have a role in emotional behavior and endocrine regulation. The present data suggest that sex-specific patterns of proliferating progenitors may represent an important mechanism for the development of sex differences of adult brain.
|Characteristics of multi-organ lymphangiectasia resulting from temporal deletion of calcitonin receptor-like receptor in adult mice.|
Samantha L Hoopes,Helen H Willcockson,Kathleen M Caron
PloS one 7 2012
Adrenomedullin (AM) and its receptor complexes, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (Calcrl) and receptor activity modifying protein 2/3, are highly expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells and are required for embryonic lymphatic development. To determine the role of Calcrl in adulthood, we used an inducible Cre-loxP system to temporally and ubiquitously delete Calcrl in adult mice. Following tamoxifen injection, Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice rapidly developed corneal edema and inflammation that was preceded by and persistently associated with dilated corneoscleral lymphatics. Lacteals and submucosal lymphatic capillaries of the intestine were also dilated, while mesenteric collecting lymphatics failed to properly transport chyle after an acute Western Diet, culminating in chronic failure of Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice to gain weight. Dermal lymphatic capillaries were also dilated and chronic edema challenge confirmed significant and prolonged dermal lymphatic insufficiency. In vivo and in vitro imaging of lymphatics with either genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of AM signaling revealed markedly disorganized lymphatic junctional proteins ZO-1 and VE-cadherin. The maintenance of AM signaling during adulthood is required for preserving normal lymphatic permeability and function. Collectively, these studies reveal a spectrum of lymphatic defects in adult Calcrl(fl/fl)/CAGGCre-ER™ mice that closely recapitulate the clinical symptoms of patients with corneal, intestinal and peripheral lymphangiectasia.
|Targeting of Nrf2 induces DNA damage signaling and protects colonic epithelial cells from ionizing radiation.|
Sang Bum Kim,Raj K Pandita,Ugur Eskiocak,Peter Ly,Aadil Kaisani,Rakesh Kumar,Crystal Cornelius,Woodring E Wright,Tej K Pandita,Jerry W Shay
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 2012
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for antioxidant and anti-inflammation enzymes that binds to its endogenous inhibitor protein, Kelch-like ECH (erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology)-associated protein 1, in the cytoplasm under normal conditions. Various endogenous or environmental oxidative stresses, such as ionizing radiation (IR), can disrupt the Nrf2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 complex. This allows Nrf2 to translocate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to induce transcription of heme oxygenase-1 and other cytoprotective enzymes through binding to antioxidant responsive elements. However, how Nrf2 protects cells from IR-induced damage remains unclear. Here, we report that Nrf2 activation by the synthetic triterpenoids, bardoxolone methyl (BARD) and 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9 (11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide, protects colonic epithelial cells against IR-induced damage, in part, by enhancing signaling of the DNA damage response. Pretreatment with BARD reduced the frequency of both G1 and S/G2 chromosome aberrations and enhanced the disappearance of repairosomes (C-terminal binding protein interacting protein, Rad51, and p53 binding protein-1 foci) after IR. BARD protected cells from IR toxicity in a Nrf2-dependent manner. The p53 binding protein-1 promoter contains three antioxidant responsive elements in which Nrf2 directly binds following BARD treatment. In addition, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9 (11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide provided before exposure to a lethal dose of whole-body irradiation protected WT mice from DNA damage and acute gastrointestinal toxicity, which resulted in improved overall survival. These results demonstrate that Nrf2 activation by synthetic triterpenoids is a promising candidate target to protect the gastrointestinal tract against acute IR in vitro and in vivo.
|Stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin protects neurons from remote degeneration after acute focal brain damage.|
Maria Teresa Viscomi,Marcello D'Amelio,Virve Cavallucci,Laura Latini,Elisa Bisicchia,Francesca Nazio,Francesca Fanelli,Mauro Maccarrone,Sandra Moreno,Francesco Cecconi,Marco Molinari
Autophagy 8 2012
Autophagy is the evolutionarily conserved degradation and recycling of cellular constituents. In mammals, autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. However, its involvement in acute brain damage is unknown. This study addresses the function of autophagy in neurodegeneration that has been induced by acute focal cerebellar lesions. We provide morphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical evidence that lesions in a cerebellar hemisphere activate autophagy in axotomized precerebellar neurons. Through time course analyses of the apoptotic cascade, we determined mitochondrial dysfunction to be the early trigger of degeneration. Further, the stimulation of autophagy by rapamycin and the employment of mice with impaired autophagic responses allowed us to demonstrate that autophagy protects from damage promoting functional recovery. These findings have therapeutic significance, demonstrating the potential of pro-autophagy treatments for acute brain pathologies, such as stroke and brain trauma.
|Advancing cancer research: From hallmarks & biomarkers to tumor microenvironment progression|
|Comprehensive solutions for studying cell health - Life, death, and everything in between.|
Instructions for Use
|ApopTag® Fluorescein In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit|