Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M, R||IP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||100mM Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide|
|Application||Detect PLCβ-1 using this Anti-PLCβ-1 Antibody validated for use in IP.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-PLCβ-1 Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Translesion polymerase η is upregulated by cancer therapeutics and confers anticancer drug resistance.|
Tomicic, MT; Aasland, D; Naumann, SC; Meise, R; Barckhausen, C; Kaina, B; Christmann, M
Cancer research 74 5585-96 2014
DNA repair processes are a key determinant of the sensitivity of cancer cells to DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics, which may induce certain repair genes as a mechanism to promote resistance. Here, we report the results of a screen for repair genes induced in cancer cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, which identified the translesion polymerase η (PolH) as a p53-regulated target acting as one defense against interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents. PolH was induced by fotemustine, mafosfamide, and lomustine in breast cancer, glioma, and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo, with similar inductions observed in normal cells such as lymphocytes and diploid fibroblasts. PolH contributions to the protection against ICL-inducing agents were evaluated by its siRNA-mediated attenuation in cells, which elevated sensitivity to these drugs in all tumor cell models. Conversely, PolH overexpression protected cancer cells against these drugs. PolH attenuation reduced repair of ICL lesions as measured by host cell reactivation assays and enhanced persistence of γH2AX foci. Moreover, we observed a strong accumulation of PolH in the nucleus of drug-treated cells along with direct binding to damaged DNA. Taken together, our findings implicated PolH in ICL repair as a mechanism of cancer drug resistance and normal tissue protection.
|Three prime exonuclease I (TREX1) is Fos/AP-1 regulated by genotoxic stress and protects against ultraviolet light and benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage.|
Christmann, M; Tomicic, MT; Aasland, D; Berdelle, N; Kaina, B
Nucleic acids research 38 6418-32 2010
Cells respond to genotoxic stress with the induction of DNA damage defence functions. Aimed at identifying novel players in this response, we analysed the genotoxic stress-induced expression of DNA repair genes in mouse fibroblasts proficient and deficient for c-Fos or c-Jun. The experiments revealed a clear up-regulation of the three prime exonuclease I (trex1) mRNA following ultraviolet (UV) light treatment. This occurred in the wild-type but not c-fos and c-jun null cells, indicating the involvement of AP-1 in trex1 induction. Trex1 up-regulation was also observed in human cells and was found on promoter, RNA and protein level. Apart from UV light, TREX1 is induced by other DNA damaging agents such as benzo(a)pyrene and hydrogen peroxide. The mouse and human trex1 promoter harbours an AP-1 binding site that is recognized by c-Fos and c-Jun, and its mutational inactivation abrogated trex1 induction. Upon genotoxic stress, TREX1 is not only up-regulated but also translocated into the nucleus. Cells deficient in TREX1 show reduced recovery from the UV and benzo(a)pyrene-induced replication inhibition and increased sensitivity towards the genotoxins compared to the isogenic control. The data revealed trex1 as a novel DNA damage-inducible repair gene that plays a protective role in the genotoxic stress response.
|Involvement of nuclear PLCbeta1 in lamin B1 phosphorylation and G2/M cell cycle progression.|
Fiume, Roberta, et al.
FASEB J., 23: 957-66 (2009) 2009
Inositide-specific phospholipase Cbeta1 (PLCbeta1) signaling in cell proliferation has been investigated thoroughly in the G(1) cell cycle phase. However, little is known about its involvement in G(2)/M progression. We used murine erythroleukemia cells to investigate the role of PLCbeta1 in G(2)/M cell cycle progression and screened a number of candidate intermediate players, particularly mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC), which can, potentially, transduce serum mitogenic stimulus and induce lamin B1 phosphorylation, leading to G(2)/M progression. We report that PLCbeta1 colocalizes and physically interacts with lamin B1. Studies of the effects of inhibitors and selective si-RNA mediated silencing showed a role of JNK, PKCalpha, PKCbetaI, and the beta1 isoform of PI-PLC in cell accumulation in G(2)/M [as observed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)]. To shed light on the mechanism, we considered that the final signaling target was lamin B1 phosphorylation. When JNK, PKCalpha, or PLCbeta1 were silenced, lamin B1 exhibited a lower extent of phosphorylation, as compared to control. The salient features to emerge from these studies are a common pathway in which JNK is likely to represent a link between mitogenic stimulus and activation of PLCbeta1, and, foremost, the finding that the PLCbeta1-mediated pathway represents a functional nuclear inositide signaling in the G(2)/M transition.
|Low level of sarcolemmal phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in cardiomyopathic hamster (UM-X7.1) heart.|
A Ziegelhoffer, P S Tappia, N Mesaeli, N Sahi, N S Dhalla, V Panagia
Cardiovascular research 49 118-26 2001
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P(2)) is not only a precursor to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins 1,4, 5-P(3)) and sn-1,2 diacylglycerol, but also essential for the function of several membrane proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the level of this phospholipid in the cell plasma membrane (sarcolemma, SL) of cardiomyopathic hamster (CMPH) heart. METHODS: We examined the cardiac SL PtdIns 4,5-P(2) mass and the activities of the enzymes responsible for its synthesis and hydrolysis in 250-day-old UM-X7.1 CMPH at a severe stage of congestive heart failure (CHF) and in age-matched controls (Syrian Golden hamsters). RESULTS: The SL PtdIns 4,5-P(2) mass in CMPH was reduced by 72% of the control value. The activities of PtdIns 4 kinase and PtdIns 4-P 5 kinase were depressed by 69 and 50% of control values, respectively. Although, the total phospholipase C (PLC) activity was moderately, although significantly, decreased (by 18% of control), PLCdelta(1) isoenzyme activity in the SL membrane was elevated, with a concomitant increase in its protein content, whereas PLCbeta(1) and gamma(1) isoenzyme activities were depressed despite the increase in their protein levels. A 2-fold increase in the Ins 1,4,5-P(3) concentration in the cytosol of the failing heart of CMPH was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced SL level of PtdIns 4, 5-P(2) may severely jeopardize cardiac cell function in this hamster model of CHF. In addition, the profound changes in the profile of heart SL PLC isoenzyme could alter the complex second messenger responses of these isoenzymes, and elevated Ins 1,4,5-P(3) levels may contribute to intracellular Ca(2+) overload in the failing cardiomyocyte.
|Changes in sarcolemmal PLC isoenzymes in postinfarct congestive heart failure: partial correction by imidapril.|
P S Tappia, S Y Liu, S Shatadal, N Takeda, N S Dhalla, V Panagia
The American journal of physiology 277 H40-9 1999
We have examined the changes in quantity and activity of cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PLC)-beta(1), -gamma(1), and -delta(1) in a model of congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to large transmural myocardial infarction (MI). We also instituted a late in vivo monotherapy with imidapril, an ANG-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, to test the hypothesis that its therapeutic action is associated with the functional correction of PLC isoenzymes. SL membranes were purified from the surviving left ventricle of rats in a moderate stage of CHF at 8 wk after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. SL PLC isoenzymes were examined in terms of protein mass and hydrolytic activity. CHF resulted in a striking reduction (to 6-17% of controls) of the mass and activity of gamma(1)- and delta(1)-isoforms in combination with a significant increase of both PLC beta(1) parameters. In vivo treatment with imidapril (1 mg/kg body wt, daily, initiated 4 wk after coronary occlusion) improved the contractile function and induced a partial correction of PLCs. The mass of SL phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the activities of the enzymes responsible for its synthesis were significantly reduced in post-MI CHF and partially corrected by imidapril. The results indicate that profound changes in the profile of heart SL PLC-beta(1), -gamma(1), and -delta(1) occur in CHF, which could alter the complex second messenger responses of these isoforms, whereas their partial correction by imidapril may be related to the mechanism of action of this ACE inhibitor.
|delta Opioid receptor subtypes activate inositol-signaling pathways in the production of antinociception.|
P Sánchez-Blázquez, J Garzón
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 285 820-7 1998
To analyze the selectivity of delta receptor subtypes to regulate different classes of G proteins, the expression of the alpha-subunits of Gi2, Gi3, Go1, Go2, Gq and G11 transducer proteins was reduced by administration of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) complementary to sequences in their respective mRNAs. Mice receiving antisense ODNs to Gi2 alpha, Gi3 alpha, Go2 alpha and G11 alpha subunits showed an impaired antinociceptive response to all the delta agonists evaluated. An ODN to Go1 alpha specifically blocked the antinociceptive effect of the agonist of delta-1 receptors, [D-Pen2,5]enkephalin (DPDPE), without altering the activity of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II or [D-Ser2]-Leu-enkephalin-Thr (DSLET). In mice treated with an ODN to Gq alpha, the effects of the agonists of delta-2-opioid receptors were reduced, but not those of DPDPE. Thus, Go1 proteins are selectively linked to delta-1-mediated analgesia, and Gq proteins are related to delta-2-evoked antinociception. After impairing the synthesis of Go1 alpha subunits, DPDPE exhibited an antagonistic activity on the antinociception produced by [D-Ala2]deltorphin II. After treatment with ODNs complementary to sequences in Gq alpha or PLC-beta 1 mRNAs, the analgesic capacity of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II was diminished. However, the delta-2-agonist did not alter the antinociceptive activity of DPDPE. An ODN complementary to nucleotides 7 to 26 of the murine delta receptor reduced the analgesic potency of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II, but not that observed for DPDPE. In these mice, [D-Ala2]deltorphin II did not antagonize the effect of DPDPE. These results suggest the existence of different molecular forms of the delta opioid receptor, and the involvement of inositol-signaling pathways in the supraspinal antinociceptive effects of delta agonists.
|Phospholipase C-beta1 is present in the botrysome, an intermediate compartment-like organelle, and Is regulated by visual experience in cat visual cortex|
Kind, P. C., et al
J Neurosci, 17:1471-80 (1997) 1997
|A new phospholipase C delta 4 is induced at S-phase of the cell cycle and appears in the nucleus|
Liu, N., et al
J Biol Chem, 271:355-60 (1996) 1996
|Muscarinic regulation of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein secretion and amyloid beta-protein production in human neuronal NT2N cells|
Wolf, B. A., et al
J Biol Chem, 270:4916-22 (1995) 1995
|Monoclonal antibodies to three phospholipase C isozymes from bovine brain.|
Suh, P G, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 263: 14497-504 (1988) 1988
Murine hybridoma cell lines secreting antibodies against the three bovine isozymes of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) were established: 6, 23, and 12 lines were obtained for PLC-I (150 kDa), PLC-II (145 kDa), and PLC-III (85 kDa), respectively. The antibodies were purified from ascites fluid, and their properties were studied in detail. All the antibodies cross-reacted with their corresponding PLC enzymes, but not with the other two isozymes, suggesting that the three enzymes contain very different antigenic determinants. The six antibodies elicited by bovine PLC-I also cross-reacted with human and rat enzyme, whereas three each from anti-PLC-II antibodies and anti-PLC-III antibodies did not react with the enzymes from different species. Each antibody exerts different effects on the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing activity of PLC. The most inhibitory antibody for either isozyme PLC-I or PLC-II exhibits 80% inhibition, whereas no more than 20% inhibition was observed for the anti-PLC-III antibodies. Purified PLC-I frequently contains catalytically active 140- and 100-kDa forms and an inactive 41-kDa protein in addition to the intact 150-kDa form, probably due to its high sensitivity to an unidentified endogenous protease. The five anti-PLC-I antibodies which bind to the denatured 150-kDa polypeptide also recognized the 140-kDa form, whereas only three cross-reacted with the 100-kDa form, and the remaining two bound to the 41-kDa protein. Competitive binding studies with intact PLC enzymes and Western blot experiments with proteolytic digests revealed that the 6 anti-PLC-I, 23 anti-PLC-II, and 12 anti-PLC-III antibodies bind at least five, six, and seven different epitopes on PLC-I, PLC-II, and PLC-III, respectively. The fact that these monoclonal antibodies bind to different epitopes on the same enzyme allowed one to develop a highly specific and sensitive tandem radioimmunoassay for quantitating PLC-I, PLC-II, and PLC-III. The principle of the assay is that binding of an 125I-labeled antibody to the antigen immobilized by another antibody at a distinctive binding site is proportional to the amount of antigen present. By using this method, PLC-I, PLC-II, and PLC-III could be measured quantitatively in the presence of other proteins, detergents, lipids, polyanions, and metal ions, all of which greatly affect the activity of PLC enzymes.