Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, Ca||ICC, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal IgG in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide and 30% glycerol. Liquid at -20°C.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Anti-K+/Cl- Cotransporter (KCC2) Antibody SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Age- and sex-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters.|
Kang, SK; Markowitz, GJ; Kim, ST; Johnston, MV; Kadam, SD
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 173 2015
Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB), with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN) as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in post-natal day 7, 10, and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs) quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.
|Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex.|
Deidda, G; Allegra, M; Cerri, C; Naskar, S; Bony, G; Zunino, G; Bozzi, Y; Caleo, M; Cancedda, L
Nature neuroscience 18 87-96 2015
Hyperpolarizing and inhibitory GABA regulates critical periods for plasticity in sensory cortices. Here we examine the role of early, depolarizing GABA in the control of plasticity mechanisms. We report that brief interference with depolarizing GABA during early development prolonged critical-period plasticity in visual cortical circuits without affecting the overall development of the visual system. The effects on plasticity were accompanied by dampened inhibitory neurotransmission, downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and reduced density of extracellular matrix perineuronal nets. Early interference with depolarizing GABA decreased perinatal BDNF signaling, and a pharmacological increase of BDNF signaling during GABA interference rescued the effects on plasticity and its regulators later in life. We conclude that depolarizing GABA exerts a long-lasting, selective modulation of plasticity of cortical circuits by a strong crosstalk with BDNF.
|Nitric oxide signaling modulates synaptic inhibition in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) via cGMP-dependent suppression of KCC2.|
Yassin, L; Radtke-Schuller, S; Asraf, H; Grothe, B; Hershfinkel, M; Forsythe, ID; Kopp-Scheinpflug, C
Frontiers in neural circuits 8 65 2014
Glycinergic inhibition plays a central role in the auditory brainstem circuitries involved in sound localization and in the encoding of temporal action potential firing patterns. Modulation of this inhibition has the potential to fine-tune information processing in these networks. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the auditory brainstem (where activity-dependent generation of NO is documented) modulates the strength of inhibition by changing the chloride equilibrium potential. Recent evidence demonstrates that large inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neurons of the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) are enhanced by a very low intracellular chloride concentration, generated by the neuronal potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC2) expressed in the postsynaptic neurons. Our data show that modulation by NO caused a 15 mV depolarizing shift of the IPSC reversal potential, reducing the strength of inhibition in SPN neurons, without changing the threshold for action potential firing. Regulating inhibitory strength, through cGMP-dependent changes in the efficacy of KCC2 in the target neuron provides a postsynaptic mechanism for rapidly controlling the inhibitory drive, without altering the timing or pattern of the afferent spike train. Therefore, this NO-mediated suppression of KCC2 can modulate inhibition in one target nucleus (SPN), without influencing inhibitory strength of other target nuclei (MSO, LSO) even though they are each receiving collaterals from the same afferent nucleus (a projection from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, MNTB).
|Overexpression of BDNF increases excitability of the lumbar spinal network and leads to robust early locomotor recovery in completely spinalized rats.|
Ziemlińska, E; Kügler, S; Schachner, M; Wewiór, I; Czarkowska-Bauch, J; Skup, M
PloS one 9 e88833 2014
Strategies to induce recovery from lesions of the spinal cord have not fully resulted in clinical applications. This is a consequence of a number of impediments that axons encounter when trying to regrow beyond the lesion site, and that intraspinal rearrangements are subjected to. In the present study we evaluated (1) the possibility to improve locomotor recovery after complete transection of the spinal cord by means of an adeno-associated (AAV) viral vector expressing the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in lumbar spinal neurons caudal to the lesion site and (2) how the spinal cord transection and BDNF treatment affected neurotransmission in the segments caudal to the lesion site. BDNF overexpression resulted in clear increases in expression levels of molecules involved in glutamatergic (VGluT2) and GABAergic (GABA, GAD65, GAD67) neurotransmission in parallel with a reduction of the potassium-chloride co-transporter (KCC2) which contributes to an inhibitory neurotransmission. BDNF treated animals showed significant improvements in assisted locomotor performance, and performed locomotor movements with body weight support and plantar foot placement on a moving treadmill. These positive effects of BDNF local overexpression were detectable as early as two weeks after spinal cord transection and viral vector application and lasted for at least 7 weeks. Gradually increasing frequencies of clonic movements at the end of the experiment attenuated the quality of treadmill walking. These data indicate that BDNF has the potential to enhance the functionality of isolated lumbar circuits, but also that BDNF levels have to be tightly controlled to prevent hyperexcitability.
|Gephyrin clusters are absent from small diameter primary afferent terminals despite the presence of GABA(A) receptors.|
Lorenzo, LE; Godin, AG; Wang, F; St-Louis, M; Carbonetto, S; Wiseman, PW; Ribeiro-da-Silva, A; De Koninck, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 8300-17 2014
Whereas both GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) and glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a role in control of dorsal horn neuron excitability, their relative contribution to inhibition of small diameter primary afferent terminals remains controversial. To address this, we designed an approach for quantitative analyses of the distribution of GABA(A)R-subunits, GlyR α1-subunit and their anchoring protein, gephyrin, on terminals of rat spinal sensory afferents identified by Calcitonin-Gene-Related-Peptide (CGRP) for peptidergic terminals, and by Isolectin-B4 (IB4) for nonpeptidergic terminals. The approach was designed for light microscopy, which is compatible with the mild fixation conditions necessary for immunodetection of several of these antigens. An algorithm was designed to recognize structures with dimensions similar to those of the microscope resolution. To avoid detecting false colocalization, the latter was considered significant only if the degree of pixel overlap exceeded that expected from randomly overlapping pixels given a hypergeometric distribution. We found that both CGRP(+) and IB4(+) terminals were devoid of GlyR α1-subunit and gephyrin. The α1 GABA(A)R was also absent from these terminals. In contrast, the GABA(A)R α2/α3/α5 and β3 subunits were significantly expressed in both terminal types, as were other GABA(A)R-associated-proteins (α-Dystroglycan/Neuroligin-2/Collybistin-2). Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of GABA(A)R β3 subunits in small afferent terminals. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed the results of light microscopy immunochemical analysis. These results indicate that dorsal horn inhibitory synapses follow different rules of organization at presynaptic versus postsynaptic sites (nociceptive afferent terminals vs inhibitory synapses on dorsal horn neurons). The absence of gephyrin clusters from primary afferent terminals suggests a more diffuse mode of GABA(A)-mediated transmission at presynaptic than at postsynaptic sites.
|Synaptic elements for GABAergic feed-forward signaling between HII horizontal cells and blue cone bipolar cells are enriched beneath primate S-cones.|
Puller, C; Haverkamp, S; Neitz, M; Neitz, J
PloS one 9 e88963 2014
The functional roles and synaptic features of horizontal cells in the mammalian retina are still controversial. Evidence exists for feedback signaling from horizontal cells to cones and feed-forward signaling from horizontal cells to bipolar cells, but the details of the latter remain elusive. Here, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the expression patterns of the SNARE protein syntaxin-4, the GABA receptor subunits α1 and ρ, and the cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC and KCC2 in the outer plexiform layer of primate retina. In macaque retina, as observed previously in other species, syntaxin-4 was expressed on dendrites and axon terminals of horizontal cells at cone pedicles and rod spherules. At cones, syntaxin-4 appeared densely clustered in two bands, at horizontal cell dendritic tips and at the level of desmosome-like junctions. Interestingly, in the lower band where horizontal cells may synapse directly onto bipolar cells, syntaxin-4 was highly enriched beneath short-wavelength sensitive (S) cones and colocalized with calbindin, a marker for HII horizontal cells. The enrichment at S-cones was not observed in either mouse or ground squirrel. Furthermore, high amounts of both GABA receptor and cation-chloride cotransporter subunits were found beneath primate S-cones. Finally, while syntaxin-4 was expressed by both HI and HII horizontal cell types, the intense clustering and colocalization with calbindin at S-cones indicated an enhanced expression in HII cells. Taken together, GABA receptors beneath cone pedicles, chloride transporters, and syntaxin-4 are putative constituents of a synaptic set of proteins which would be required for a GABA-mediated feed-forward pathway via horizontal cells carrying signals directly from cones to bipolar cells.
|Down-regulation of KCC2 expression and phosphorylation in motoneurons, and increases the number of in primary afferent projections to motoneurons in mice with post-stroke spasticity.|
Toda, T; Ishida, K; Kiyama, H; Yamashita, T; Lee, S
PloS one 9 e114328 2014
Spasticity obstructs motor function recovery post-stroke, and has been reported to occur in spinal cord injury and electrophysiological studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess spinal cord circuit spasticity in post-stroke mice. At 3, 7, 21, and 42 d after photothrombotic ischemic cortical injury in C57BL/6J mice, we observed decreased rate-dependent depression (RDD) of the Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) in the affected forelimb of mice compared with the limbs of sham mice and the non-affected forelimb. This finding suggests a hyper-excitable stretch reflex in the affected forelimb. We then performed immunohistochemical and western blot analyses to examine the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and phosphorylation of the KCC2 serine residue, 940 (S940), since this is the main chloride extruder that affects neuronal excitability. We also performed immunohistochemical analyses on the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1)-positive boutons to count the number of Ia afferent fibers that connect to motoneurons. Western bolts revealed that, compared with sham mice, experimental mice had significantly reduced KCC2 expression at 7 d post-stroke, and dephosphorylated S940 at 3 and 7 d post-stroke in motoneuron plasma membranes. We also observed a lower density of KCC2-positive areas in the plasma membrane of motoneurons at 3 and 7 d post-stroke. However, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that there were no differences between groups 21 and 42 d post-stroke, respectively. In addition, at 7 and 42 d post-stroke, experimental mice exhibited a significant increase in vGluT1 boutons compared with sham mice. Our findings suggest that both the down-regulation of KCC2 and increases in Ia afferent fibers are involved in post-stroke spasticity.
|Immunolocalization of cation-chloride cotransporters in the developing and mature spinal cord of opossums, Monodelphis domestica.|
Phan, HL; Pflieger, JF
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 7 12 2013
Spinal inhibition is required to generate coordinated outputs between antagonistic muscles during locomotion. It relies on low neuronal chloride concentration set by two cation-chloride cotransporters, NKCC1 and KCC2 which, respectively, pumps Cl(-) in or out of neurons. It is generally accepted that NKCC1 is gradually inactivated during development, while KCC2 is upregulated and activated, resulting in low intracellular [Cl(-)]. Newborn opossums are very immature but perform rhythmic and alternate movements of the forelimbs to crawl on the mother's belly and attach to a teat. Their hindlimbs are immobile. The alternation of the forelimbs suggests that mechanisms allowing spinal inhibition are present at birth. We studied the anatomical basis of inhibition in the spinal enlargements of postnatal opossums by immunolocalizing NKCC1 and KCC2. In some specimens, motoneurons and sensory afferents were labeled with TRDA prior to immunolabeling. At birth, both NKCC1 and KCC2 are detected in the presumptive gray and white matter of the ventral and the intermediolateral cord of both enlargements, but are sparse in the dorsal horn, where KCC2 is mostly seen on a small bundle of dendrites along primary afferents. KCC2 labeling is bright and has a mesh-like appearance in the gray matter and a radial appearance in the white matter, whereas NKCC1 is pale and diffuse. The subsequent expression of the cotransporters follows general ventrodorsal and mediolateral gradients, with the lumbar segments slightly lagging the cervical segments, until the mature pattern is observed around the 5th week. At all ages studied, KCC2 labeling is strong in the periphery of neurons. NKCC1 labeling decreases and becomes more uniformly distributed in the cells with age. Despite the significant anatomical and motor differences between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs of neonatal opossums, the maturation of KCC2 and NKCC1 is quite similar in both enlargements.
|An unexpected role of neuroligin-2 in regulating KCC2 and GABA functional switch.|
Sun, C; Zhang, L; Chen, G
Molecular brain 6 23 2013
GABAA receptors are ligand-gated Cl- channels, and the intracellular Cl- concentration governs whether GABA function is excitatory or inhibitory. During early brain development, GABA undergoes functional switch from excitation to inhibition: GABA depolarizes immature neurons but hyperpolarizes mature neurons due to a developmental decrease of intracellular Cl- concentration. This GABA functional switch is mainly mediated by the up-regulation of KCC2, a potassium-chloride cotransporter that pumps Cl- outside neurons. However, the upstream factor that regulates KCC2 expression is unclear.We report here that KCC2 is unexpectedly regulated by neuroligin-2 (NL2), a cell adhesion molecule specifically localized at GABAergic synapses. The expression of NL2 precedes that of KCC2 in early postnatal development. Upon knockdown of NL2, the expression level of KCC2 is significantly decreased, and GABA functional switch is significantly delayed during early development. Overexpression of shRNA-proof NL2 rescues both KCC2 reduction and delayed GABA functional switch induced by NL2 shRNAs. Moreover, NL2 appears to be required to maintain GABA inhibitory function even in mature neurons, because knockdown NL2 reverses GABA action to excitatory. Gramicidin-perforated patch clamp recordings confirm that NL2 directly regulates the GABA equilibrium potential. We further demonstrate that knockdown of NL2 decreases dendritic spines through down-regulating KCC2.Our data suggest that in addition to its conventional role as a cell adhesion molecule to regulate GABAergic synaptogenesis, NL2 also regulates KCC2 to modulate GABA functional switch and even glutamatergic synapses. Therefore, NL2 may serve as a master regulator in balancing excitation and inhibition in the brain.
|Decreased Immunoreactivities of the Chloride Transporters, KCC2 and NKCC1, in the Lateral Superior Olive Neurons of Kanamycin-treated Rats.|
Suh, MW; Ahn, SC
Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology 5 117-21 2012
From our previous study about the weak expressions of potassium-chloride (KCC2) and sodium-potassium-2 chloride (NKCC1) co-transporters in the lateral superior olive (LSO) in circling mice, we hypothesized that partially damaged cochlea of circling mice might be a cause of the weak expressions of KCC2 or NKCC1. To test this possibility, we reproduced the altered expressions of KCC2 and NKCC1 in the LSO of rats, whose cochleae were partially destroyed with kanamycin.Rat pups were treated with kanamycin from postnatal (P)3 to P8 (700 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection, twice a day) and sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and auditory brain stem response.The SEM study revealed partially missing hair cells in P9 rats treated with kanamycin, and the hearing threshold was elevated to 63.8±2.5 dB SPL (4 ears) at P16. Both KCC2 and NKCC1 immunoreactivities were more prominent in control rats on P16. On 9 paired slices, the mean densities of NKCC1 immunoreactivities were 118.0±1.0 (control) and 112.2±1.2 (kanamycin treated), whereas those of KCC2 were 115.7±1.5 (control) and 112.0±0.8 (kanamycin treated).We concluded that weak expressions of KCC2 and NKCC1 in circling mice were due to partial destruction of cochleae.