Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Eu, H, M, R||ELISA, IF, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit Serum. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Amyloid Oligomer Antibody, αβ, oligomeric SDS
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Forebrain microglia from wild-type but not adult 5xFAD mice prevent amyloid-β plaque formation in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.|
Hellwig, S; Masuch, A; Nestel, S; Katzmarski, N; Meyer-Luehmann, M; Biber, K
Scientific reports 5 14624 2015
The role of microglia in amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition is controversial. In the present study, an organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) system with an in vivo-like microglial-neuronal environment was used to investigate the potential contribution of microglia to Aβ plaque formation. We found that microglia ingested Aβ, thereby preventing plaque formation in OHSCs. Conversely, Aβ deposits formed rapidly in microglia-free wild-type slices. The capacity to prevent Aβ plaque formation was absent in forebrain microglia from young adult but not juvenile 5xFamilial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mice. Since no loss of Aβ clearance capacity was observed in both wild-type and cerebellar microglia from 5xFAD animals, the high Aβ1-42 burden in the forebrain of 5xFAD animals likely underlies the exhaustion of microglial Aβ clearance capacity. These data may therefore explain why Aβ plaque formation has never been described in wild-type mice, and point to a beneficial role of microglia in AD pathology. We also describe a new method to study Aβ plaque formation in a cell culture setting.
|Kaolin-induced chronic hydrocephalus accelerates amyloid deposition and vascular disease in transgenic rats expressing high levels of human APP.|
Silverberg, GD; Miller, MC; Pascale, CL; Caralopoulos, IN; Agca, Y; Agca, C; Stopa, EG
Fluids and barriers of the CNS 12 2 2015
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is most common in the elderly and has a high co-morbidity with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). To understand the relationship between NPH, AD and CVD, we investigated how chronic hydrocephalus impacts brain amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation and vascular pathology in an AD transgenic rodent model. Previously we showed that the altered CSF physiology produced by kaolin-hydrocephalus in older wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats increased Aβ and hyperphosphorylated Tau (Silverberg et. al. Brain Res. 2010, 1317:286-296). We postulated that hydrocephalus would similarly affect an AD rat model.Thirty-five transgenic rats (tgAPP21) that express high levels of human APP and naturally overproduce Aβ40 were used. Six- (n = 7) and twelve-month-old (n = 9) rats had hydrocephalus induced by cisternal kaolin injection. We analyzed Aβ burden (Aβ40, Aβ42 and oligomeric Aβ) and vascular integrity (Masson trichrome and Verhoeff-Van Gieson) by immunohistochemistry and chemical staining at 10 weeks (n = 8) and 6 months (n = 5) post hydrocephalus induction. We also analyzed whether the vascular pathology seen in tgAPP21 rats, which develop amyloid angiopathy, was accelerated by hydrocephalus. Age-matched naïve and sham-operated tgAPP21 rats served as controls (n = 19).In hydrocephalic tgAPP21 rats, compared to naïve and sham-operated controls, there was increased Aβ 40 and oligomeric Aβ in hippocampal and cortical neurons at 10 weeks and 6 months post-hydrocephalus induction. No dense-core amyloid plaques were seen, but diffuse Aβ immunoreactivity was evident in neurons. Vascular pathology was accelerated by the induction of hydrocephalus compared to controls. In the six-month-old rats, subtle degenerative changes were noted in vessel walls at 10 weeks post-kaolin, whereas at six months post-kaolin and in the 12-month-old hydrocephalic rats more pronounced amyloid angiopathic changes were seen, with frequent large areas of infarction noted.Kaolin-hydrocephalus can accelerate intraneuronal Aβ40 accumulation and vascular pathology in tgAPP21 rats. In addition, disrupted CSF production and reduced CSF turnover results in impaired Aβ clearance and accelerated vascular pathology in chronic hydrocephalus. The high co-morbidity seen in NPH, AD and CVD is likely not to be an age-related coincidence, but rather a convergence of pathologies related to diminished CSF clearance.
|Amyloid properties of the mouse egg zona pellucida.|
Egge, N; Muthusubramanian, A; Cornwall, GA
PloS one 10 e0129907 2015
The zona pellucida (ZP) surrounding the oocyte is an extracellular fibrillar matrix that plays critical roles during fertilization including species-specific gamete recognition and protection from polyspermy. The mouse ZP is composed of three proteins, ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3, all of which have a ZP polymerization domain that directs protein fibril formation and assembly into the three-dimensional ZP matrix. Egg coats surrounding oocytes in nonmammalian vertebrates and in invertebrates are also fibrillar matrices and are composed of ZP domain-containing proteins suggesting the basic structure and function of the ZP/egg coat is highly conserved. However, sequence similarity between ZP domains is low across species and thus the mechanism for the conservation of ZP/egg coat structure and its function is not known. Using approaches classically used to identify amyloid including conformation-dependent antibodies and dyes, X-ray diffraction, and negative stain electron microscopy, our studies suggest the mouse ZP is a functional amyloid. Amyloids are cross-β sheet fibrillar structures that, while typically associated with neurodegenerative and prion diseases in mammals, can also carry out functional roles in normal cells without resulting pathology. An analysis of the ZP domain from mouse ZP3 and ZP3 homologs from five additional taxa using the algorithm AmylPred 2 to identify amyloidogenic sites, revealed in all taxa a remarkable conservation of regions that were predicted to form amyloid. This included a conserved amyloidogenic region that localized to a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids previously shown in mouse ZP3 to be essential for fibril assembly. Similarly, a domain in the yeast protein α-agglutinin/Sag 1p, that possesses ZP domain-like features and which is essential for mating, also had sites that were predicted to be amyloidogenic including a hydrophobic stretch that appeared analogous to the critical site in mouse ZP3. Together, these studies suggest that amyloidogenesis may be a conserved mechanism for ZP structure and function across billions of years of evolution.
|S100A9 knockout decreases the memory impairment and neuropathology in crossbreed mice of Tg2576 and S100A9 knockout mice model.|
Kim, HJ; Chang, KA; Ha, TY; Kim, J; Ha, S; Shin, KY; Moon, C; Nacken, W; Kim, HS; Suh, YH
PloS one 9 e88924 2014
Our previous study presented evidence that the inflammation-related S100A9 gene is significantly upregulated in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models and human AD patients. In addition, experiments have shown that knockdown of S100A9 expression improves cognition function in AD model mice (Tg2576), and these animals exhibit reduced amyloid plaque burden. In this study, we established a new transgenic animal model of AD by crossbreeding the Tg2576 mouse with the S100A9 knockout (KO) mouse. We observed that S100A9KO/Tg2576 (KO/Tg) mice displayed an increased spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze task and Y-maze task as well as decreased amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) neuropathology because of reduced levels of Aβ, C-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP-CT) and phosphorylated tau and increased expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and also decreased expression of inflammatory IL-6 and tumor neurosis factor (TNF)-α when compared with age-matched S100A9WT/Tg2576 (WT/Tg) mice. Overall, these results suggest that S100A9 is responsible for the neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits in Tg2576 mice. The mechanism of S100A9 is able to coincide with the inflammatory process. These findings indicate that knockout of S100A9 is a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AD.
|Functional amyloids in the mouse sperm acrosome.|
Guyonnet, B; Egge, N; Cornwall, GA
Molecular and cellular biology 34 2624-34 2014
The acrosomal matrix (AM) is an insoluble structure within the sperm acrosome that serves as a scaffold controlling the release of AM-associated proteins during the sperm acrosome reaction. The AM also interacts with the zona pellucida (ZP) that surrounds the oocyte, suggesting a remarkable stability that allows its survival despite being surrounded by proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes released during the acrosome reaction. To date, the mechanism responsible for the stability of the AM is not known. Our studies demonstrate that amyloids are present within the sperm AM and contribute to the formation of an SDS- and formic-acid-resistant core. The AM core contained several known amyloidogenic proteins, as well as many proteins predicted to form amyloid, including several ZP binding proteins, suggesting a functional role for the amyloid core in sperm-ZP interactions. While stable at pH 3, at pH 7, the sperm AM rapidly destabilized. The pH-dependent dispersion of the AM correlated with a change in amyloid structure leading to a loss of mature forms and a gain of immature forms, suggesting that the reversal of amyloid is integral to AM dispersion.
|Experimental traumatic brain injury induces rapid aggregation and oligomerization of amyloid-beta in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model.|
Washington, PM; Morffy, N; Parsadanian, M; Zapple, DN; Burns, MP
Journal of neurotrauma 31 125-34 2014
Soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are hypothesized to be the pathogenic species in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and increased levels of oligomers in the brain subsequent to traumatic brain injury (TBI) may exacerbate secondary injury pathways and underlie increased risk of developing AD in later life. To determine whether TBI causes Aβ aggregation and oligomerization in the brain, we exposed triple transgenic AD model mice to controlled cortical impact injury and measured levels of soluble, insoluble, and oligomeric Aβ by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 3, and 7 days postinjury. TBI rapidly increased levels of both soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the injured cortex at 1 day postinjury. We confirmed previous findings that identified damaged axons as a major site of Aβ accumulation using both immunohistochemistry and biochemistry. We also report that soluble Aβ oligomers were significantly increased in the injured cortex, as demonstrated by both ELISA and Western blot. Interestingly, the mouse brain is able to rapidly clear trauma-induced Aβ, with both soluble and insoluble Aβ species returning to sham levels by 7 days postinjury. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TBI causes acute accumulation and aggregation of Aβ in the brain, including the formation of low- and high-molecular-weight Aβ oligomers. The formation and aggregation of Aβ into toxic species acutely after injury may play a role in secondary injury cascades after trauma and, chronically, may contribute to increased risk of developing AD in later life.
|The response of cerebral cortex to haemorrhagic damage: experimental evidence from a penetrating injury model.|
Purushothuman, S; Marotte, L; Stowe, S; Johnstone, DM; Stone, J
PloS one 8 e59740 2013
Understanding the response of the brain to haemorrhagic damage is important in haemorrhagic stroke and increasingly in the understanding the cerebral degeneration and dementia that follow head trauma and head-impact sports. In addition, there is growing evidence that haemorrhage from small cerebral vessels is important in the pathogenesis of age-related dementia (Alzheimer's disease). In a penetration injury model of rat cerebral cortex, we have examined the neuropathology induced by a needlestick injury, with emphasis on features prominent in the ageing and dementing human brain, particularly plaque-like depositions and the expression of related proteins. Needlestick lesions were made in neo- and hippocampal cortex in Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-5 months. Brains were examined after 1-30 d survival, for haemorrhage, for the expression of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein (APP), for gliosis and for neuronal death. Temporal cortex from humans diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease was examined with the same techniques. Needlestick injury induced long-lasting changes-haem deposition, cell death, plaque-like deposits and glial invasion-along the needle track. Around the track, the lesion induced more transient changes, particularly upregulation of Aβ, APP and hyperphosporylated tau in neurons and astrocytes. Reactions were similar in hippocampus and neocortex, except that neuronal death was more widespread in the hippocampus. In summary, experimental haemorrhagic injury to rat cerebral cortex induced both permanent and transient changes. The more permanent changes reproduced features of human senile plaques, including the formation of extracellular deposits in which haem and Aβ-related proteins co-localised, neuronal loss and gliosis. The transient changes, observed in tissue around the direct lesion, included the upregulation of Aβ, APP and hyperphosphorylated tau, not associated with cell death. The findings support the possibility that haemorrhagic damage to the brain can lead to plaque-like pathology.
|Toxic prefibrillar α-synuclein amyloid oligomers adopt a distinctive antiparallel β-sheet structure.|
Celej, María Soledad, et al.
Biochem. J., 443: 719-26 (2012) 2012
Parkinson's disease is an age-related movement disorder characterized by the presence in the mid-brain of amyloid deposits of the 140-amino-acid protein AS (α-synuclein). AS fibrillation follows a nucleation polymerization pathway involving diverse transient prefibrillar species varying in size and morphology. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, cytotoxicity is currently attributed to these prefibrillar species rather than to the insoluble aggregates. Nevertheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for cytotoxicity remain elusive and structural studies may contribute to the understanding of both the amyloid aggregation mechanism and oligomer-induced toxicity. It is already recognized that soluble oligomeric AS species adopt β-sheet structures that differ from those characterizing the fibrillar structure. In the present study we used ATR (attenuated total reflection)-FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy, a technique especially sensitive to β-sheet structure, to get a deeper insight into the β-sheet organization within oligomers and fibrils. Careful spectral analysis revealed that AS oligomers adopt an antiparallel β-sheet structure, whereas fibrils adopt a parallel arrangement. The results are discussed in terms of regions of the protein involved in the early β-sheet interactions and the implications of such conformational arrangement for the pathogenicity associated with AS oligomers.
|Defects in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolomic signatures of evolving energetic stress in mouse models of familial Alzheimer's disease.|
Trushina, E; Nemutlu, E; Zhang, S; Christensen, T; Camp, J; Mesa, J; Siddiqui, A; Tamura, Y; Sesaki, H; Wengenack, TM; Dzeja, PP; Poduslo, JF
PloS one 7 e32737 2012
The identification of early mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and associated biomarkers could advance development of new therapies and improve monitoring and predicting of AD progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to underlie AD pathophysiology, however, no comprehensive study exists that evaluates the effect of different familial AD (FAD) mutations on mitochondrial function, dynamics, and brain energetics.We characterized early mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolomic signatures of energetic stress in three commonly used transgenic mouse models of FAD. Assessment of mitochondrial motility, distribution, dynamics, morphology, and metabolomic profiling revealed the specific effect of each FAD mutation on the development of mitochondrial stress and dysfunction. Inhibition of mitochondrial trafficking was characteristic for embryonic neurons from mice expressing mutant human presenilin 1, PS1(M146L) and the double mutation of human amyloid precursor protein APP(Tg2576) and PS1(M146L) contributing to the increased susceptibility of neurons to excitotoxic cell death. Significant changes in mitochondrial morphology were detected in APP and APP/PS1 mice. All three FAD models demonstrated a loss of the integrity of synaptic mitochondria and energy production. Metabolomic profiling revealed mutation-specific changes in the levels of metabolites reflecting altered energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in brains of FAD mice. Metabolic biomarkers adequately reflected gender differences similar to that reported for AD patients and correlated well with the biomarkers currently used for diagnosis in humans.Mutation-specific alterations in mitochondrial dynamics, morphology and function in FAD mice occurred prior to the onset of memory and neurological phenotype and before the formation of amyloid deposits. Metabolomic signatures of mitochondrial stress and altered energy metabolism indicated alterations in nucleotide, Krebs cycle, energy transfer, carbohydrate, neurotransmitter, and amino acid metabolic pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, is an underlying event in AD progression, and FAD mouse models provide valuable tools to study early molecular mechanisms implicated in AD.
|Abnormal accumulation of autophagic vesicles correlates with axonal and synaptic pathology in young Alzheimer's mice hippocampus.|
Sanchez-Varo, R; Trujillo-Estrada, L; Sanchez-Mejias, E; Torres, M; Baglietto-Vargas, D; Moreno-Gonzalez, I; De Castro, V; Jimenez, S; Ruano, D; Vizuete, M; Davila, JC; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Jimenez, AJ; Vitorica, J; Gutierrez, A
Acta neuropathologica 123 53-70 2012
Dystrophic neurites associated with amyloid plaques precede neuronal death and manifest early in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this work we have characterized the plaque-associated neuritic pathology in the hippocampus of young (4- to 6-month-old) PS1(M146L)/APP(751SL) mice model, as the initial degenerative process underlying functional disturbance prior to neuronal loss. Neuritic plaques accounted for almost all fibrillar deposits and an axonal origin of the dystrophies was demonstrated. The early induction of autophagy pathology was evidenced by increased protein levels of the autophagosome marker LC3 that was localized in the axonal dystrophies, and by electron microscopic identification of numerous autophagic vesicles filling and causing the axonal swellings. Early neuritic cytoskeletal defects determined by the presence of phosphorylated tau (AT8-positive) and actin-cofilin rods along with decreased levels of kinesin-1 and dynein motor proteins could be responsible for this extensive vesicle accumulation within dystrophic neurites. Although microsomal Aβ oligomers were identified, the presence of A11-immunopositive Aβ plaques also suggested a direct role of plaque-associated Aβ oligomers in defective axonal transport and disease progression. Most importantly, presynaptic terminals morphologically disrupted by abnormal autophagic vesicle buildup were identified ultrastructurally and further supported by synaptosome isolation. Finally, these early abnormalities in axonal and presynaptic structures might represent the morphological substrate of hippocampal dysfunction preceding synaptic and neuronal loss and could significantly contribute to AD pathology in the preclinical stages.Full Text Article
|Anti-Amyloid oligomer, abeta, oligomeric - Data Sheet|