Key Specifications Table
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 assays|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Efficient iPS cell production with the MyoD transactivation domain in serum-free culture.|
Hiroyuki Hirai,Nobuko Katoku-Kikyo,Peter Karian,Meri Firpo,Nobuaki Kikyo
PloS one 7 2012
A major difficulty of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been the low efficiency of reprogramming differentiated cells into pluripotent cells. We previously showed that 5% of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were reprogrammed into iPSCs when they were transduced with a fusion gene composed of Oct4 and the transactivation domain of MyoD (called M(3)O), along with Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (SKM). In addition, M(3)O facilitated chromatin remodeling of pluripotency genes in the majority of transduced MEFs, including cells that did not become iPSCs. These observations suggested the possibility that more than 5% of cells had acquired the ability to become iPSCs given more favorable culture conditions. Here, we raised the efficiency of making mouse iPSCs with M(3)O-SKM to 26% by culturing transduced cells at low density in serum-free culture medium. In contrast, the efficiency increased from 0.1% to only 2% with the combination of wild-type Oct4 and SKM (OSKM) under the same culture condition. For human iPSCs, M(3)O-SKM achieved 7% efficiency under a similar serum-free culture condition, in comparison to 1% efficiency with OSKM. This study highlights the power of combining the transactivation domain of MyoD with a favorable culture environment.
|Establishment of LIF-dependent human iPS cells closely related to basic FGF-dependent authentic iPS cells.|
Hiroyuki Hirai,Meri Firpo,Nobuaki Kikyo
PloS one 7 2012
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be divided into a leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent naïve type and a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-dependent primed type. Although the former are more undifferentiated than the latter, they require signal transduction inhibitors and sustained expression of the transgenes used for iPSC production. We used a transcriptionally enhanced version of OCT4 to establish LIF-dependent human iPSCs without the use of inhibitors and sustained transgene expression. These cells belong to the primed type of pluripotent stem cell, similar to bFGF-dependent iPSCs. Thus, the particular cytokine required for iPSC production does not necessarily define stem cell phenotypes as previously thought. It is likely that the bFGF and LIF signaling pathways converge on unidentified OCT4 target genes. These findings suggest that our LIF-dependent human iPSCs could provide a novel model to investigate the role of cytokine signaling in cellular reprogramming.
|BMP4 Signaling Acts via dual-specificity phosphatase 9 to control ERK activity in mouse embryonic stem cells.|
Zhongwei Li,Teng Fei,Jianping Zhang,Gaoyang Zhu,Lu Wang,Danyu Lu,Xiaochun Chi,Yan Teng,Ning Hou,Xiao Yang,Hongquan Zhang,Jing-Dong J Han,Ye-Guang Chen
Cell stem cell 10 2012
Extrinsic BMP and LIF signaling collaboratively maintain mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency, whereas appropriate ERK activity is essential for ESC fate commitment. However, how the extrinsic signals restrain appropriate ERK activity remains elusive. Here, we show that, whereas LIF sustains relatively high ERK activity, BMP4 can steadily attenuate ERK activity by upregulating ERK-specific dual-specificity phosphatase 9 (DUSP9). This upregulation requires Smad1/5 and Smad4 and specifically occurs to DUSP9, but not other DUSPs, and only in ESCs. Through DUSP9-mediated inhibition of ERK activity, BMP signaling reinforces the self-renewal status of mouse ESCs together with LIF. Upon LIF withdrawal, ESCs spontaneously undergo neural differentiation, during which process DUSP9 can partially mediate BMP inhibition on neural commitment. Collectively, our findings identify DUSP9 as a critical mediator of BMP signaling to control appropriate ERK activity critical for ESC fate determination.
|Efficient feeder-free episomal reprogramming with small molecules.|
Junying Yu,Kevin Fongching Chau,Maxim A Vodyanik,Jinlan Jiang,Yong Jiang
PloS one 6 2011
Genetic reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could offer replenishable cell sources for transplantation therapies. To fulfill their promises, human iPSCs will ideally be free of exogenous DNA (footprint-free), and be derived and cultured in chemically defined media free of feeder cells. Currently, methods are available to enable efficient derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs. However, each of these methods has its limitations. We have previously derived footprint-free human iPSCs by employing episomal vectors for transgene delivery, but the process was inefficient and required feeder cells. Here, we have greatly improved the episomal reprogramming efficiency using a cocktail containing MEK inhibitor PD0325901, GSK3? inhibitor CHIR99021, TGF-?/Activin/Nodal receptor inhibitor A-83-01, ROCK inhibitor HA-100 and human leukemia inhibitory factor. Moreover, we have successfully established a feeder-free reprogramming condition using chemically defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements and chemically defined human ESC medium mTeSR1 for the derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs. These improvements enabled the routine derivation of footprint-free human iPSCs from skin fibroblasts, adipose tissue-derived cells and cord blood cells. This technology will likely be valuable for the production of clinical-grade human iPSCs.Full Text Article
|Large scale phosphoproteome profiles comprehensive features of mouse embryonic stem cells.|
Li, QR; Xing, XB; Chen, TT; Li, RX; Dai, J; Sheng, QH; Xin, SM; Zhu, LL; Jin, Y; Pei, G; Kang, JH; Li, YX; Zeng, R
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M110.001750 2011
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and capable of unlimited self-renewal. Elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism may contribute to the advancement of cell-based regenerative medicine. In the present work, we performed a large scale analysis of the phosphoproteome in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Using multiplex strategies, we detected 4581 proteins and 3970 high confidence distinct phosphosites in 1642 phosphoproteins. Notably, 22 prominent phosphorylated stem cell marker proteins with 39 novel phosphosites were identified for the first time by mass spectrometry, including phosphorylation sites in NANOG (Ser-65) and RE1 silencing transcription factor (Ser-950 and Thr-953). Quantitative profiles of NANOG peptides obtained during the differentiation of mES cells revealed that the abundance of phosphopeptides and non-phosphopeptides decreased with different trends. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest global characterization of phosphorylation in mES cells. Compared with a study of ultimately differentiated tissue cells, a bioinformatics analysis of the phosphorylation data set revealed a consistent phosphorylation motif in human and mouse ES cells. Moreover, investigations into phosphorylation conservation suggested that phosphoproteins were more conserved in the undifferentiated ES cell state than in the ultimately differentiated tissue cell state. However, the opposite conclusion was drawn from this conservation comparison with phosphosites. Overall, this work provides an overview of phosphorylation in mES cells and is a valuable resource for the future understanding of basic biology in mES cells.
|Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and estradiol affect growth and differentiation of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.|
Catherine A VandeVoort,Dana L Hill,Charles L Chaffin,Alan J Conley
Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 35 2011
The timing of the origins of fetal alcohol syndrome has been difficult to determine, in part because of the challenge associated with in vivo studies of the peri-implantation stage of embryonic development. Because embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from blastocyst stage embryos, they are used as a model for early embryo development.
|Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells from aged mice using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells.|
Zhao Cheng,Sachiko Ito,Naomi Nishio,Hengyi Xiao,Rong Zhang,Haruhiko Suzuki,Yayoi Okawa,Toyoaki Murohara,Ken-Ichi Isobe
Journal of molecular cell biology 3 2011
If induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are to be used to treat damaged tissues or repair organs in elderly patients, it will be necessary to establish iPS cells from their tissues. To determine the feasibility of using this technology with elderly patients, we asked if it was indeed possible to establish iPS cells from the bone marrow (BM) of aged mice. BM cells from aged C57BL/6 mice carrying the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene were cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for 4 days. Four factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) were introduced into the BM-derived myeloid (BM-M) cells. The efficiency of generating iPS cells from aged BM cultured in GM-CSF was low. However, we succeeded in obtaining BM-M-iPS cells from aged C57BL/6 mice, which carried GFP. Our BM-M-iPS cells expressed SSEA-1 and Pou5f1 and were positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. The iPS cells did make teratoma with three germ layers following injection into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, and can be differentiated to three germ layers in vitro. By co-culturing with OP9, the BM-M-iPS cells can be differentiated to the myeloid lineage. The differentiated BM-M-iPS cells proliferated well in the presence of GM-CSF, and lost expression of Nanog and Pou5f1, at least in part, due to methylation of their promoters. On the contrary, Tnf and Il1b gene expression was upregulated and their promoters were hypomethylated.
|Epigenetic regulation of Nanog expression by Ezh2 in pluripotent stem cells.|
Villasante, A; Piazzolla, D; Li, H; Gomez-Lopez, G; Djabali, M; Serrano, M
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10 1488-98 2011
Nanog levels in pluripotent stem cells are heterogeneous and this is thought to reflect two different and interchangeable cell states, respectively poised to self-renew (Nanog-high subpopulation) or to differentiate (Nanog-low subpopulation). However, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for this pattern of Nanog expression. Here, we have examined the impact of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 on pluripotent stem cells and on Nanog expression. Interestingly, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells lacking Ezh2 presented higher levels of Nanog due to a relative expansion of the Nanog-high subpopulation, and this was associated to severe defects in differentiation. Moreover, we found that the Nanog promoter in embryonic stem (ES) cells and iPS cells coexists in two alternative univalent chromatin configurations, either H3K4me3 or H3K27me3, the latter being dependent on the presence of functional Ezh2. Finally, the levels of expression of Ezh2, as well as the amount of H3K27me3 present at the Nanog promoter, were higher in the Nanog-low subpopulation of ES/iPS cells. Together, these data indicate that Ezh2 directly regulates the epigenetic status of the Nanog promoter affecting the balance of Nanog expression in pluripotent stem cells and, therefore, the equilibrium between self-renewal and differentiation.
|Embryonic stem cells require Wnt proteins to prevent differentiation to epiblast stem cells.|
Derk ten Berge,Dorota Kurek,Tim Blauwkamp,Wouter Koole,Alex Maas,Elif Eroglu,Ronald K Siu,Roel Nusse
Nature cell biology 13 2011
Pluripotent stem cells exist in naive and primed states, epitomized by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the developmentally more advanced epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs; ref. 1). In the naive state of ESCs, the genome has an unusual open conformation and possesses a minimum of repressive epigenetic marks. In contrast, EpiSCs have activated the epigenetic machinery that supports differentiation towards the embryonic cell types. The transition from naive to primed pluripotency therefore represents a pivotal event in cellular differentiation. But the signals that control this fundamental differentiation step remain unclear. We show here that paracrine and autocrine Wnt signals are essential self-renewal factors for ESCs, and are required to inhibit their differentiation into EpiSCs. Moreover, we find that Wnt proteins in combination with the cytokine LIF are sufficient to support ESC self-renewal in the absence of any undefined factors, and support the derivation of new ESC lines, including ones from non-permissive mouse strains. Our results not only demonstrate that Wnt signals regulate the naive-to-primed pluripotency transition, but also identify Wnt as an essential and limiting ESC self-renewal factor.
|Radical acceleration of nuclear reprogramming by chromatin remodeling with the transactivation domain of MyoD.|
Hirai, Hiroyuki, et al.
Stem Cells, 29: 1349-61 (2011) 2011
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be created by reprogramming differentiated cells through introduction of defined genes, most commonly Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM). However, this process is slow and extremely inefficient. Here, we demonstrate radical acceleration of iPSC creation with a fusion gene between Oct4 and the powerful transactivation domain (TAD) of MyoD (M(3)O). Transduction of M(3) O as well as Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc into fibroblasts effectively remodeled patterns of DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and protein binding at pluripotency genes, raising the efficiency of making mouse and human iPSCs more than 50-fold in comparison to OSKM. These results identified that one of the most critical barriers to iPSC creation is poor chromatin accessibility and protein recruitment to pluripotency genes. The MyoD TAD has a capability of overcoming this problem. Our approach of fusing TADs to unrelated transcription factors has far-reaching implications as a powerful tool for transcriptional reprogramming beyond application to iPSC technology.
|Human Stem Cell Systems|
|Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Culture|
|STEMCCA Lentivirus Reprogramming Kits|
|Alkaline Phosphatase Detection Kit|