Antibodies for Extracellular Signaling

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An external stimuli docking with a trans-membrane receptor.
An external stimuli docking with a
trans-membrane receptor.
The binding of molecules, such as hormones, pharmacophores, toxins, or neurotransmitters, to the extracellular domains of transmembrane receptors triggers many important signaling events inside the cell. Receptors are some of the most abundant proteins in plasma membranes. Categories of ligands include agonists, which elicit a highly specific and selective response, and antagonists, which induce a non-response by blocking a receptor.

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GPCRs
GPCRs are a superfamily of seven transmembrane receptors that facilitate communication with the extracellular environment. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli causes conformational changes in the receptor, which results in the intermediate coupling and activation of GTP-binding proteins (G proteins).

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Growth Factors and Receptors
Growth factors are proteins secreted by a variety of cells, act through cell surface receptors and can elicit responses in their target cells, leading to cell proliferation and differentiation.

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Cytokines
The cytokine family of signaling molecules includes several interleukins, a variety of growth and colony-stimulating factors, ciliary neurotrophic factor, interferons, and several other molecules that exhibit pleiotropic effects on cell differentiation, tissue development and homeostasis.

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Chemokines
Chemokines are secreted by a variety of cells, act through cell surface receptors and can elicit responses in their target cells, leading to cell proliferation and differentiation.

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Tyrosine Kinase
Nearly all tyrosine kinase receptors described thus far are composed of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, a region containing the tyrosine kinase activity, and a carboxy terminus extending into the cytoplasm.

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